Lion anatomy, Maria Panfilova (3d)


Title: Lion anatomy

Name: Maria Panfilova

Here is a digital animal anatomy atlas for artists (Lion)
Availible here
You can find a promo code on my Instagram

I prepared everything for an easy exploration. Each muscle or muscle group has its own mesh properly named (96 subtools). Its easy to find muscles and hide them.
The texture has even more element names written on it.
I recommend to use this model along with other sources such as learning anatomy videos and books. You can also use human anatomy resources as well and compare it with feline anatomy.
The main sources I used:

  1. Eliot Goldfinger - Animal Anatomy for Artists - The Elements of Form
  2. Wilhelm Ellenberger -


Very nice work! Interesting to see.

Cobra 6


Ms Panfilova, I like your sculpt of the lioness from Prof. Hermann Dittrich’s (1868-paintings in Band III: Der Lowe of Handbuch der Anatomie der Tiere fur Kunstler, 1905, (The anatomist who wrote the volumes was Prof. W. Ellenberger, M.D., Ph.D. of Dreden). Unfortunately the anatomical nomenclature has changed significantly since that time. The original 5 volumes were combined into a single hard bound atlas in 1929. In 1949, Helene Weinbaum translated the keys from the combined German volume into English for a harbound Dover edition in English (although most of the nomenclature was and remained in Latin). Later the Dover editions were turned into a single softbound edition and had some images added by a new editor, Lewis S. Brown in 1956. Today, the latest printings have become so dark as to be almost useless.

No matter which book you referenced, you were using very old terminology for the anatomy. There wasn’t an “officially recognized Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV)” until the 1950s
Work on the NAV, like the human Terminologia Anatomica continues today. This makes it difficult to compare the excellent animal anatomy in Ellenberger, Baum and Dittrich with any current literature. I have converted the keys from the original Latin versions to Anglicized versions of the the current NAV if you are interested in having them for the lioness you sculpted.

One other note, Dittrich worked from glass plate photographs. His lion plates are the only ones to have survived WW II and are in the archives of the HfBK of Dresden and one thing I noticed is that when he completed his dissection photos, they made a skeletal mount from the bones. As you can see from this dorsal view, the bones comprising the rib cage are asymmetrical in the specimen, so Dittrich drew the right side and "mirrored it to the left to complete the painting. The result is a slightly too narrow thorax. He also moved the position of the scapulae in towards the midline - which is more anatomically correct than their positions in the skeletal mount.

Kindest Regards,