Forgive me if the physics/geology degree oozes out in this post.
I’m not totally sold on jddog’s version. In a system like this, the planet would still be under the primary influence of it’s own gravity well, even though a black hole is tearing it apart. A lot of stuff would stay near the planet’s mass even as it starts to break up. The atmosphere would probably start to bleed off, but that wouldn’t be too visible. A planet (unless totally cooled, i.e. moon) is a pretty plastic thing, and will strech a fair bit. (The earth is actually somewhat elipsoid, from its spin.) Under high gravitational stress, it would probably stretch out a fair bit, then the crust would start to rupture. It would continue to elongate; the upper mantle would stretch, and the lower mantle/core would bubble a little until it froze. It would continue to stretch out until it created a decaying ring around the black hole.
A thought excersise as to how this might work; let’s say you make a ball 1m in diameter. The centre 5 cm is water, then it’s soft chewing gum out to 97 cm (a little harder near the top), and hard candy for the last 3 cm. You then set it up in a net, and spin it. The faster it spins, the more it would start to stretch; at first, you’d just see some cracks and a little elongation, but eventually the candy would start to break off. The chewing gum would still stick to the candy, but it would stretch. Eventually, the water would start to leak out. Along the way, bits and pieces would come loose, candy & gum, gum, gum& water. It would be a terrible mess, and there would be seagulls around for days…
It probably wouldn’t make a terribly epic image. And I’ve ever watched a planet break up, nor bothered to calculate what might happen. Hopefully, though, it will provide you food for thought. (Groan!)