I usually do one of two things if I want to scale my stuff:
- keep the source data on a layer that I turn off
- vectorize my shapes if they’re suitable for it so that I can scale all I want.
Unfortunately, pixels being what they are, once you’ve scaled down and the filtering process (if any) has been applied… no. I think PS would have an enORmous amount of memory usage of it were to have a history of the kind you suggest - though maybe having a ‘snapshot’ function so you could double back to that particular version could work
(but then It’d be just as easy for you to just keep a version that’s not scaled down)