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hamed
01-18-2003, 09:24 AM
Hi all,

There are some terms are new for me.Could anyone give
me correct and easy defination from them.

1. Clock Speed?
2. Overclocking?

Any links or advice would be very much appreciated.

DeathCarrot
01-18-2003, 10:11 AM
Clock speed = the speed at which the processor works at, for a 1.8Ghz Pentium 4 processor, the clock speed is 1.8 Ghz

Overclock = To increase your clock speed by adjusting one or both of two things, the front side bus speed, or the multiplier... ADD: oh, and this is done through the BIOS.

hamed
01-18-2003, 11:11 AM
Thanks DeathCarrot,
But If 1.8Ghz Pentium 4 processor works on 1.8 GHZ,what is
the reason for increasing that speed?maybe any damage on CPU?
And what is multiplier?

Thanks

Flyby
01-18-2003, 03:53 PM
First you got something called the front side Bus (or FSB). This is the base frequency from where it all starts.

A processor uses the FSB in combination with an internal multiplier to achieve the final frequency (the one it is advertised for)

let me give you an example :
Take an older motherboard, based upon a 133mhz FSB for example...
a Pentium III 1000mhz would use a 7.5 multiplier : 133x7.5=997.5mhz. The marketing department would consider this as a 1000mhz :)

RAM is also depending on this FSB frequency, as is the frequency of your AGP and PCI slots...

Overclocking can be done in several ways:

You either fiddle with the multiplier or with the fsb.
However, most cpu's have their multipliers locked and can't be changed without physically altering some connections on your cpu, a sometimes risky thing.
So the most common way of overclocking is to up your FSB.
However, increasing your base frequency , also means that your RAM, AGP and PCI slots will also increase.
There is a REAL danger that, when you up the FSB too far, your hard disks will get corrupted, your PCI cards will fail, etc...
so be very moderate when upping the FSB in your BIOS.

The fantastic success stories you often read on hardware forums, don't tell you how many people have had catastrophic system failures due to overclocking too much.

hamed
01-18-2003, 08:00 PM
Many thanks,BUT some questions:
1. How did you calculate 7.5 multiplier for Pentium III 1000mhz?
Could you give me current multiplier for AMD an Intel CPU's in P4?

2. How about current and moderate FSB for different CPU's?Is
there any way for calculate.how about calculation for RAM and AGP?



Thanks.

elvis
01-19-2003, 08:46 AM
1. A pentium III runs with a system bus of 133MHz. 133*7.5=1000 (ie: system bus of 133 times multiplier of 7.5 equals CPU clockspeed of 1000MHz, or 1GHz).

2) Front side buses for CPUs are usually explained on the manufacturer's website. check AMD and intel's website for a full list of chip specs.

in short, i can offer you the following FSB speeds (i'll mention recent chips and up: no need to dwell on older chips)

Intel:
Pentium III coppermine: 133
Celeron "II" coppermine up to 766: 66
Celeron "II" coppermine 800 and up: 100
Pentium IV up to 2.4 (non-'B'): 100 quad pumped to 400
Pentium IV 2.4B and up: 133 quad pumped to 533
Celeron "IV": 100 quad pumped to 400

AMD:
Duron: 100 (200 internal)
Athlon classic to 1000: 100 (200 internal)
Athlon classic 1100 and up: 133 (266 internal)
Athlon XP up to 2400+: 133 (266 internal)
Athlon XP 2600+ and up: 166 (333 internal)

AGP bus must always be 66MHz. Any higher and you can damage your video card. most new motherboards these days have great devider systems to keep FSB speeds at the right amount, however extreme overclockers will often go beyond this.

your ram depends entirely on the board, and what sort of ram you are using. SDR/DDR/rambus all have their own speeds and timings within their own groups. basically the faster your ram in your system, the better your chances of overclocking and keeping your system stable.

remember that there is no such thing as a guaranteed overclock. just because 99% of people can get their XXXXMHz cpu to reach YYYYMHz doesn't mean you will too!

there are plenty of overclockers websites out there that offer advice to new overclockers.

http://www.overclockers.com.au
http://www.overclockers.com
http://www.overclockers.co.uk
http://www.overclockers.de
http://www.overclockers.co.nz

basically just substitute your country's extension and you have your own lcoal overclocking community! :)

GregHess
01-19-2003, 03:17 PM
Key note:

Overclocking is not for the computer inexperienced. If you've never build a system before...you shouldn't think of overclocking a machine. If you don't know how to get into the bios, how to flash the bios, or what some of the bios settings are (like cas, ras, spread spectrum, pci 2.1 compliance, fast writes, AGP driving strength)...you shouldn't be overclocking.

[If your running Windows ME...Don't even think about overclocking. In fact you should be slapped for even reading about it]

Overclocking can...

1) Destroy or damage hardware.
2) Destroy or damage an OS install, possibly destroying data.
3) Destroy system stability.

Overclocking requires...

1) A great investment in time and energy into computer systems...their parts, their usages, and their quirks.
2) Understanding of thermal and voltage systems in a machine, and how to get the best cooling, and the most stable voltage.
3) High Quality PSU's, High Quality Cooling, and Extremely high quality ram (As FSB oc'in is the most common).

Overclocking can...

1) Enable you to get more bang for the buck, by purchasing a cheaper solution and pushing it up to the next retail speed.
2) Teach you enough about machines to enable you to produce extremely stable machines...that AREN'T overclocked.
3) Get you the fastest machine on the block.

Everybody else covered the various subtopics. I just wanted to point out that oc'in is not for "newbies"

Of course sometimes you can get lucky. But trying explaining to Dell how you fubared your new machine by trying a voltage mod.

This quote says it all.

The fantastic success stories you often read on hardware forums, don't tell you how many people have had catastrophic system failures due to overclocking too much

Nobody likes to be the idiot with the post about how they destroyed their new 5k computer.

singularity2006
01-20-2003, 02:56 AM
for a moment there... i thought someone had been smoking something when I read the header "overclicking" ... then i realized it was just a type... hehehe... i would've been like "how do u overclick?"

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